Every 10 years the federal government conducts the Census of the United States Population, as required by the U. S Constitution. The first census was taken in 1790 under the responsibility of the Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson. That census counted 5,233 York County residents, including 661 residents of the Town of York. As of the 2000 Census, the County's population had grown to 56,297, while the population of Yorktown had fallen to 203.